The Neanderthals are the main focus of this program lesson. Students will see that the Neanderthals were a robust people adapted for a cold, harsh environment. Their survival depended on more than just biology, however. A major factor to their survival was their stone tool culture, known as the Mousterian. In addition, the fact that they transported raw materials during their migrations to make future tools demonstrated forward planning. These people also practiced burial of the dead in which grave goods were left with the deceased. Finally, the program explores the question of what happened to these ancient humans.